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ABC News(WASHINGTON) -- For over five seconds, the presidents of two of the world's most powerful countries gripped and shook each other's hands with an amount of force uncommon for the ritual -- an action some are interpreting to be symbolic of their budding relationship's dynamic.

U.S. President Donald Trump and newly elected French President Emmanuel Macron met for the first time as they convened at a NATO summit in Belgium, and, as is tradition in the Western world, shook hands at the conclusion of remarks in front of reporters.

The shake lasted over 5.2 seconds and included an unsuccessful attempt by Trump at one point to release himself from his counterpart's grasp.

Trump's hesitancy to engage in such a lengthy series of ups and downs may stem from his aversion to the gesture. He has previously commented that he is "not a big fan of the handshake," though has regularly and publicly participated in them since launching his bid for the presidency almost two years ago.

"I think it's barbaric," said Trump on "Later Today" in 1999. "I mean, they have medical reports all the time. Shaking hands, you catch colds, you catch the flu, you catch this. You catch all sorts of things. Who knows what you don't catch?"

During a January press conference prior to his inauguration in which he refuted unsubstantiated claims about his conduct during a trip to Russia included in an intelligence dossier that had been leaked to the public, Trump again shared his position.

"I'm also very much of a germaphobe, by the way," said Trump.

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ABC News(MANCHESTER, England) -- Hashim Norat stood at the back of the crowd. Tears stained his cheeks from beneath his sunglasses. He and his wife had taken a 90-minute detour from their 25th wedding anniversary to stop today at St. Anne’s Square in Manchester, England, where a makeshift memorial has sprung up, festooned with hundreds of wreaths and candles for the victims of Monday night's bombing at the Manchester Arena.

He wore shorts to “fit in, to look like a tourist” he told ABC News, expecting vitriol from hundreds gathered there to mourn because the suspected suicide bomber "thinks he did this in my religion.” And said he wouldn’t have blamed them.

 The bombing sank him into depression earlier this week, he said. But Manchester Mayor Andy Burham’s message of inclusiveness on Tuesday lifted him from the depths.

"I have a lot of faith in humanity ... I love people," he told ABC News. “This is not in my name, this is not in my religion’s name,” he repeated. He is a Muslim, and he is British, and he is deeply proud of being both.

 Twenty-two people were killed in Monday night’s suicide bombing at the Manchester Arena, including a female police officer and an 8-year-old girl. Salman Abedi, 22, the suspected suicide bomber, who had previously worshiped at a mosque, died at the scene of the attack. ISIS has claimed responsibility for the bombing.

Standing stunned at St. Anne’s Square, Norat couldn’t have known that Burham was solemnly addressing the press just feet away. ABC News told the mayor about Norat, and he hustled over.

Again, Norat teared up. He said he’d repeatedly watched a clip of the mayor calling for unity in a time of division. "That video alone gave us the courage to get up and say, 'No, we're gonna fight this,'" Norat told the mayor. "No individual is gonna ruin that."

 Norat called the United Kingdom an amazing country, telling the mayor, "My father came here in 1965. He's an imam, 88 years old. Six children. We own properties, we work hard, we pay taxes, we employ people, we run a charity."

"We love people," he told the mayor. "This is Islam. Not what that person did ... 22 beautiful lives lost."

Norat said Burnham's words "gave the country hope." A crowd had begun to gather around the two. First quick-moving photographers, snapping away. Then, people who moments before had been laying wreaths.

"My father always says, 'A sentence can make a difference, positively and very negatively.' ... That positivity is going to go around the world."

 "Don’t hate us. Love us, we are one," Norat said. At that, the mayor, his arm still around Norat’s shoulder, responded, “We couldn’t be more proud of you being part of us.”

And suddenly, unexpected applause and cheers erupted. Total strangers started lining up to shake the men’s hands, to embrace them as they had embraced each other and this reeling community.

"Together ... we will tackle those who are extremists and don't represent anybody," Burnham added.

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iStock/Thinkstock(MOSUL, Iraq) — A U.S. military investigation has found that 105 civilians were killed in west Mosul in March after a coalition airstrike caused a secondary explosion that was fatal.

Investigators said they believe that ISIS deliberately planted two snipers on the structure's rooftop and rigged the house with explosives to draw a coalition airstrike that would kill the civilians sheltering inside. Neither Iraqi nor coalition forces knew that civilians were inside the home prior to the coalition airstrike.

"This investigation determined that ISIS intentionally staged explosives in a home it knew to be occupied by more than 100 civilians and used this structure as a fighting position to engage Counter Terrorism forces (CTS)" said Brigadier General Matthew Isler, at a Pentagon briefing.

"They put a lot of work into this setup," Isler, who lead the U.S. military's investigation into the deadly airstrike, added.

A secondary explosion triggered by the U.S. airstrike killed 101 civilians inside the home and four others in a neighboring structure. An additional 36 civilians are still missing and may have escaped the airstrike

ISIS had discovered the large number of civilians gathered at the two story home in the Al-Jadidah district in west Mosul, according to Isler. After they "interacted" with the civilians, he continued, ISIS rigged the back of the house with explosives and positioned two snipers to draw fire on the house.

Elite CTS forces had taken ISIS sniper fire from the house for days and observed it for two days before they called in an airstrike to eliminate the two ISIS snipers.

While there had been overhead drone surveillance of the neighborhood before the Iraqi troops moved, bad weather prevented overhead surveillance on March 15 and 16.

On March 17, a U.S. aircraft dropped a GBU-38 precision bomb carrying 192 pounds of explosive power that was intended to eliminate the two snipers on the rooftop. That amount of explosives was not enough to bring down the structure, but it triggered a secondary blast from the explosives planted by ISIS.

Though the airstrike had gone through the coalition's vigorous vetting to ensure there were no coalition casualties, Isler said, "Neither Coalition nor CTS forces knew that civilians were sheltered in the bottom floors of the structure."

"Post blast analysis conducted by Coalition Explosive Ordnance Disposal teams' detected explosive residues that are common to ISIS explosives, but are not consistent with the explosive content of the GBU-38," said Isler. "ISIS-emplaced explosive material conservatively contained more than four times the net explosive weight of the GBU-38."

Isler emphasized that the coalition takes responsibility for the airstrike.

In the wake of the incident, the coalition has already adapted new drone tactics to identify civilians being used by ISIS as human shields.

The coalition is reviewing a recommendation by investigators to establish a dedicated team that would work with Iraqi Civil Defense Force to help assess allegations of civilian casualties.

"The creation of this team will help speed-up the assessment process, provide for increased accountability for strikes that may result in civilian casualties, and help capture lessons learned so we can continue to improve our targeting procedures to defeat ISIS, while preserving civilian life and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible," said Isler.

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ABC News(MANCHESTER, England) -- After information and photos from the scene of the bombing at the Manchester Arena were leaked by U.S. media, the mayor of the city called them arrogant and disrespectful.

"I felt sick to the pit of my stomach," Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham told ABC News in an interview, describing his reaction to seeing crime scene photos published on The New York Times website.

Burnham, a former rising star in the Tony Blair Labour Party who was elected mayor this month, said he thought the leak, which revealed images from the bloodied crime scene, was especially distressing to victims' families. Burnham said he has been to the crime scene, which he called a "harrowing experience," but he said the families of the victims have not had that chance yet.

"To see pictures of it not even in the media here," he told ABC News. "It was a pretty, pretty tough thing to see."

Burnham said he thinks the leak is "wrong, it is arrogant, and it is disrespectful to the people of Greater Manchester and particular to the families of those injured during this, our darkest hour."

The New York Times said in a statement that the images and information it published "were neither graphic nor disrespectful of victims, and consistent with the common line of reporting on weapons used in horrific crimes, as The Times and other media outlets have done following terrorist acts around the world, from Boston to Paris to Baghdad, and many places in between. Our mission is to cover news and inform our readers. We have strict guidelines on how and in what ways we cover sensitive stories. Our coverage of Monday’s horrific attack has been both comprehensive and responsible."

Twenty-two people were killed in Monday night's suicide bombing, including a female police officer and an 8-year-old girl.

Salman Abedi, 22, the suspected suicide bomber, died at the scene of the attack.

Burnham said that after the name of the suspected bomber first leaked to the U.S. media, he personally called the acting U.S. ambassador to Britain and said he was assured that the leaks would stop.

"I've raised my concerns all week about the leaking of information to U.S. media outlets," Burnham said, "I communicated it personally ... to the acting ambassador here who understood my concerns and said it would stop."

But "it hadn't stopped," he added, calling that "unacceptable."

Burnham said the lead of the investigation should have control over the release of information so it is not compromised.

"I don't want a diplomatic row with my friends in the United States of America. We're longstanding allies," he said. "We want to work together on the same basis of trust that we've always worked."

The mayor's message to the U.S. government is "this must stop immediately," calling the leaks "morally wrong."

Burnham said a statement that he believes the U.S. government should issue an apology.

"I'm not blaming the American public," he said. "However I do look to the president and his senior team to make it clear that this is unacceptable."

Shortly after Burnham's interview with ABC News, President Trump released a statement saying, "The alleged leaks coming out of government agencies are deeply troubling. These leaks have been going on for a long time and my Administration will get to the bottom of this. The leaks of sensitive information pose a grave threat to our national security. I am asking the Department of Justice and other relevant agencies to launch a complete review of this matter, and if appropriate, the culprit should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. There is no relationship we cherish more than the Special Relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom."

British Prime Minister Theresa May said Thursday that progress was being made in the investigation into Monday's attack, but reiterated that the national threat level is still at critical -- meaning that an attack could still be imminent.

Eight people are in custody in Britain in connection with the investigation, including one of the suspect's brothers, according to a security official. Another one of the suspect's brothers and the suspect's father have been detained in Libya.

Burnham said the investigation is targeting a terror "network" in Manchester and added that those arrested in Britain were previously known to authorities.

Greater Manchester Police chief constable Ian Hopkins said Thursday, "I want to reassure people that the arrests that we have made are significant, and initial searches of premises have revealed items that we believe are very important to the investigation."

"These searches will take several days to complete, as you would expect, therefore there will be some disruption," he said. "However, it is important that we continue with these searches."

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THIERRY CHARLIER/AFP/Getty Images(BRUSSELS) — Standing before NATO allies in Brussels, President Trump offered a strong rebuke of members who are not meeting defense spending obligations — saying it's "not fair" to American taxpayers.

“I have been very, very direct with Secretary Stoltenberg and members of the alliance in saying that NATO members must finally contribute their fair share and meet their financial obligations. But 23 of the 28 member nations are still not paying what they should be paying, and what they're supposed to be paying for their defense,” said Trump.

“This is not fair to the people and taxpayers of the United States, and many of these nations owe massive amounts of money from past years, and not paying in those past years,” said Trump.

The president pressed members of NATO to adjust their defense spending to meet the Wales pledge — at least two percent of their GDP.

“Over the last eight years, the United States spent more on defense than all other NATO countries combined,” said Trump. “Two percent is the bare minimum for confronting today's very real and very vicious threats. If NATO countries made their full and complete contributions, then NATO would be even stronger than it is today, especially from the threat of terrorism."

The president's Brussels meeting with the leaders is his fourth stop on his inaugural overseas trip. Monday night's deadly terrorist attack in Manchester brings new urgency to the summit, where the fight against terror was already a key item on the agenda.

During the campaign, the president cited cost-sharing and what he believed as NATO's lack of focus on terrorism as reason for calling it "obsolete."

"What I'm saying is NATO is obsolete," Trump told ABC in an interview in March of 2016, "and it's extremely expensive for the United States, disproportionately so. And we should readjust NATO. And it's going to have to be either readjusted to take care of terrorism or we're going to have to set up ... a new coalition."

Trump backtracked on his campaign rhetoric following his inauguration, declaring in an April 11 press conference alongside NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg that his mind had changed about the alliance.

"I said it was obsolete," Trump said. "It's no longer obsolete."

Trump offered his sharp criticism at the unveiling of a memorial at the entrance to NATO with German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

The memorial includes a piece of the Berlin Wall and a section of the steel wreckage of the World Trade Center towers, which recognizes the Article 5 collective defense treaty which was activated following the 9/11 attacks.

“Our NATO allies responded swiftly and decisively,” said Trump. “The recent attack on Manchester, in the United Kingdom demonstrates the depths of the evil we face with terrorism.”

At the beginning of his speech, Trump asked members to join him in a moment of silence recognizing terrorist attack victims in Manchester. "All nations here grieve with you and stand with you," said Trump.

In Merkel's remarks preceding Trump's speech, the German chancellor seemed to make an indirect criticism of the president's proposal for a wall on the U.S.'s southern border.

"Our alliance is united in the awareness of the importance to cooperate, to insist on freedom and we all are united in the trust that it is not isolation and the building of walls that make us successful but open societies that share the same values,” said Merkel.

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PETER BYRNE/AFP/Getty Images(MANCHESTER, England) -- Queen Elizabeth II visited a children’s hospital Thursday in Manchester, England and met with young survivors of the deadly blast that killed 22 people after an Ariana Grande concert.

The queen, wearing an orange hat and carrying a black clutch, arrived at Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital Thursday morning after the U.K. held a national moment of silence for the victims of the blast.

The 91-year-old monarch met with some of the hospital’s nurses and doctors and visited the hospital rooms of survivors, including a 15-year-old girl who was wearing an Ariana Grande T-shirt and surrounded by balloons and stuffed animals.

Queen Elizabeth asked the girl, identified as 15-year-old Millie Robson, if she had enjoyed the show. Millie told the queen she met Grande backstage before the concert.

The Monday night blast at Manchester Arena killed at least 22 people and left dozens injured. The blast, which occurred in the venue's foyer, came at the conclusion of Grande’s concert, just after pink balloons had fallen from the arena's ceiling.

Grande's audience at Manchester Arena was mostly young people, many of them teens and pre-teens wearing the singer's signature bunny ears. The queen called it "very wicked" to "target that sort of thing."

Queen Elizabeth also met with a 14-year-old girl and her parents, and a 12-year-old girl and her mom. The queen told one of the families it was "very interesting how everybody has united" in the wake of the attack.

She also met with a mother who was injured while waiting for her 12-year-old daughter at the concert. The woman, identified as Ruth Murrell, told the queen her daughter attended the concert with a friend. The friend’s mother died in the blast.

Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital has 371 beds and is the "largest single-site children's hospital in the U.K.," according to its website.

The queen issued a statement quickly after the attack, saying, “The whole nation has been shocked.”

“I know I speak for everyone in expressing my deepest sympathy to all who have been affected by this dreadful event and especially to the families and friends of those who have died or were injured,” the statement read.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — As climber fatalities continue to rise at the peak of Mount Everest, experts are questioning if the already high risk of climbing the world's tallest mountain combined with unusually high numbers of climbing permits has made the quest too perilous.

"Everest has enough dangers as it is," Dr. Kenneth Kamler, the author of Surviving the Extremes, said. "You don't need to add that additional danger of waiting in line."

The bodies of four climbers were recovered from a tent on the highest camp on Mount Everest this week, authorities said, bringing the death toll to 10 for this season.

The camp was located in an area known as "the death zone," located at over 26,000 feet, where oxygen measures one-third normal levels.

"Altitude is not natural to the body," Kamler said. "The body can't acclimatize to an altitude higher than about 18,000 feet. Beyond that your body just deteriorates."

"The conditions are harsh," David Keaveny, a medical operations specialist at Global Rescue told ABC News. "Ten to twenty-five below zero, steady winds over 60 mph."

But, he believes the 700-plus climbers he has observed on the mountain are an even larger threat. Keaveny has already flown 50 rescue missions to Everest this season.

Kamler, who has made several attempts at reaching the summit of Everest, told Good Morning America Thursday that this rising combination of altitude and overcrowding is presenting a huge challenge.

"Your metabolism slows down like a smoldering fire and you lose your energy, you lose your ability to think clearly. That leads to all kind of secondary problems," Kamler said.

The biggest issues at Everest include altitude sickness, frostbite, falls, avalanches — and, now, overcrowding.

Kalmer said in addition to the number of people, climbing to the summit of Everest has "become a trophy for a lot of people, they're not really mountaineers."

"You shouldn't attempt Everest unless you've done a lot of other mountaineering and have really proven to yourself that you can do that kind of thing relatively safely," he said.

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Wavebreak Media/Thinkstock(MANCHESTER, England) — Searches are ongoing as authorities investigate Monday's suicide bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in Manchester, England, that killed 22 people.

Eight men are in custody in connection with the attack and police said those arrests have been important.

"I want to reassure people that the arrests that we have made are significant," Greater Manchester Police chief constable Ian Hopkins said Thursday, "and initial searches of premises have revealed items that we believe are very important to the investigation."

"These searches will take several days to complete, as you would expect, therefore there will be some disruption. However, it is important that we continue with these searches," Hopkins said." We are now carrying out associated searches at a number of addresses."

British Prime Minister Theresa May said Thursday that progress was being made in the ongoing investigation, but reiterated that the national threat level was still at critical -- meaning that an attack could still be imminent.

After a meeting with the British government's COBRA crisis committee, May said "the public should remain vigilant."

Salman Abedi, 22, the suspected suicide bomber, died at the scene of the bombing.

Authorities found what was described to ABC News as a bomb-making workshop in Abedi's home in Manchester, with enough chemicals to build several additional bombs.

A brother of Salman Abedi, Hashem Abedi, was detained in Libya after the attack. Libyan authorities had been following Hashem Abedi for a month and a half because of suspected links to ISIS, said Ahmed Dagdoug, the spokesman for Libya's counterterror forces.

During interrogation, Hashem Abedi revealed that he knew his brother was going to carry out an attack, but he did not know where or when, Dagdoug said.

Hashem Abedi also revealed that he knew exactly how the bomb was made, Dagdoug said, and that he believes that Salman created the device by himself. He said that he provided some assistance to his brother, but added no specific details about how.

Dagdoug said a network was involved in planning the attack.

The brothers came to Libya on April 18 and Salman Abedi departed on May 17, Dagdoug said, but it's not clear at this time if Salman went to Syria.

Salman Abedi's father, Ramadan Abedi, was also arrested in Libya.

Dagdoug told ABC News that the two brothers do consider themselves to be members of ISIS and said that they had been studying ISIS videos online, including instructional videos that teach the viewer how to make a bomb.

Another one of the suspect's brothers, 23-year-old Ismail Abedi, was arrested in Manchester, a security official confirmed to ABC News.

On Wednesday, Hopkins said, "This is clearly a network that we are investigating, and extensive activity is taking place across Greater Manchester as we speak."

The U.K. Metropolitan Police said Wednesday that 1,000 additional armed officers have been freed up to carry out patrols across the U.K.

"The extra officers add to a wider policing plan which sees increased patrolling at crowded places, iconic sites and transport hubs as police and partners do everything they can to protect the public," the police said.

A moment of silence was held this morning to remember the 22 victims, which included a female police officer and an 8-year-old girl.

As the nation mourns, Queen Elizabeth II visited victims and hospital personnel at the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital Thursday.

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U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Daniel P. Jackson Norgart/Released(WASHINGTON) -- A U.S. Navy destroyer sailed within 12 miles of a disputed Chinese manmade island in the South China Sea on Wednesday, the first such challenge to a Chinese maritime claim to take place under the Trump administration.

According to a U.S. official, the destroyer USS Dewey sailed within 12 miles of Mischief Reef on Wednesday conducting a Freedom of Navigation Operation (FONOP), said a U.S. official. The reef is one of seven artificial islands in the Spratly Islands that China has claimed as its territory after building up reefs that at times had previously been under water.

In recent years, China dredged massive amounts of sand and earth to build up the reefs into artificial islands that now include airfields and other facilities that could be used by China's military.

The U.S. military's freedom of navigation operations challenge excessive maritime claims made by countries worldwide by sailing within the 12-mile territorial limits that extend from shore.

Wednesday's freedom of navigation operation near Mischief Reef was first reported by the Wall Street Journal.

The move is sure to antagonize China, which has reacted negatively to previous freedom of navigation operations in the Spratly Islands and Paracel Islands, two island chains in the South China Sea. The last time the U.S. military conducted such an operation near a disputed island in the South China Sea was in October under the Trump administration.

Without confirming Wednesday's freedom of navigation operation, Capt. Jeff Davis, a Pentagon spokesman said, "We operate in the Asia-Pacific region on a daily basis, including in the South China Sea. We operate in accordance with international law."

"We fly, sail, and operate wherever international law allows," added Davis. "We have a comprehensive Freedom of Navigation Operations program that seeks to challenge excessive maritime claims in order to preserve the rights, freedoms, and uses of the sea and airspace guaranteed to all nations under international law."

He added that the operations are not directed at any one country or specific bodies of water. In 2016, the United States conducted challenged the excessive maritime claims of 22 countries including allies and partners.

"We are continuing regular FONOPS, as we have routinely done in the past and will continue to do in the future," said Davis.

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Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images(BRUSSELS) -- President Donald Trump will attend a NATO meeting in Brussels on Thursday with heads of state from all 28 members, despite his past criticism of the alliance.

On the campaign trail and as president-elect, Trump repeatedly called NATO "obsolete," raising doubts about whether the United States, under his leadership, would help defend its NATO allies in Europe if Russia attacked them.

But during a press conference at the White House with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in April, he reversed course and reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to the organization.

"The Secretary General and I had a productive discussion about what more NATO can do in the fight against terrorism," Trump said. "I complained about that a long time ago and they made a change and now they do fight terrorism. I said it was obsolete; it's no longer obsolete."

Trump has advocated that the alliance take on an increased role in the fight against ISIS. Stoltenberg said last week that NATO members were discussing that decision, though no combat troops would be deployed, he said.

So, what exactly is NATO? ABC News breaks down the organization’s history, importance and criticisms.

What is NATO?

NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a security alliance established in 1949 during the early days of the Cold War to counter Soviet aggression in Europe.

Now numbering 28 countries in Europe and North America, the alliance’s goal is to “safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means,” according to its website.

The organization promotes “democratic values” and encourages member nations to work together on issues of defense and security to prevent long-term conflict.

When security disputes occur, NATO advocates peaceful resolutions. There are guidelines for the use of military force, outlined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, the founding treaty of NATO.

NATO adheres to a policy of collective defense, meaning an attack on one member is considered "an attack against all." The policy is outlined in Article 5 and has only been invoked once, after the Twin Towers in New York City were attacked on Sept. 11, 2001, and NATO members sent troops to Afghanistan.

After the Taliban fell, a United Nations Security Council resolution established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), under NATO’s control, to stabilize the country. There were 1,044 non-U.S. NATO service members killed fighting in Afghanistan.

How does NATO work?

Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, each member nation is represented by an ambassador that sits on the North Atlantic Council (NAC), the alliance’s political decision-making body. The NAC meets at least once a week and is chaired by Secretary General Stoltenberg, the former prime minister of Norway.

When political decisions require military involvement, NATO’s Military Committee helps plan the military elements needed for an operation. While NATO has few permanent military forces, member nations can voluntarily contribute forces when the need arises.

The Military Committee is made up of the Chiefs of Defense of NATO member countries; the International Military Staff, the Military Committee’s executive body; and the military command structure, composed of Allied Command Operations and Allied Command Transformation.

Where is NATO operating right now?

Currently, NATO’s website lists five active operations and missions: Afghanistan, Kosovo, securing the Mediterranean Sea, supporting the African Union, and policing airspace.

Who pays for NATO?

NATO recommends that member countries spend 2 percent of their gross domestic product (GDP) on defense.

Only five members meet that goal: the United States, Great Britain, Greece, Estonia and Poland.

Trump has brought that shortfall front and center in his comments about the alliance. In a January interview with The Times of London, Trump mentioned the five, saying, "There’s five countries that are paying what they’re supposed to. Five. It’s not much."

It's an issue that Secretary General Stoltenberg has embraced, saying in April's press conference that fair burden-sharing has been his "top priority" since taking office.

"We have now turned a corner," Stoltenberg said. "In 2016, for the first time in many years, we saw an increase in defense spending across European allies and Canada -- a real increase of 3.8 percent or $10 billion more for our defense."

"We know that we all need to contribute our fair share because we need to keep our nations safe in a more dangerous world," he added.

What is the history behind its origin?

The North Atlantic Treaty was signed April 4, 1949, in the aftermath of World War II and rising geopolitical tension with the Soviet Union.

NATO’s website lists three purposes for its creation: “deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration.”

As the Cold War settled in, NATO stood in opposition to the Soviet bloc, communist nations allied with the Soviet Union.

In 1991, after the Soviet Union dissolved, NATO developed partnerships with former adversaries.

NATO had its first major crisis response operation in 1995, after the Bosnian civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

More recently, NATO responded to the Libyan crisis in 2011 by carrying out airstrikes to protect civilians under attack by the Gaddafi regime.

Who are the critics of NATO?

Trump isn’t the first U.S. official to criticize other NATO members for contributing less than the United States.

In 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates called the future of NATO “dim” if other nations didn’t increase their participation in allied activities.

“The blunt reality is that there will be dwindling appetite and patience in the U.S. Congress -- and in the American body politic writ large -- to expend increasingly precious funds on behalf of nations that are apparently unwilling to devote the necessary resources or make the necessary changes to be serious and capable partners in their own defense,” he said.

Gates made the comments prior to Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014 and escalating regional tension there.

NATO’s history is fraught with waves of other criticism, often in moments of relative peace. After the fall of the Soviet Union, critics alleged that a European alliance was no longer necessary to counter communist governments. But militant nationalism was still occurring and soon NATO was put to the test with the Balkan Wars. Indeed, changing security threats have consistently pushed NATO to evolve over the past 60 years.

Even Trump acknowledged the importance of the alliance in April, saying, "NATO allies defeated communism and liberated the captive nations of the Cold War. They secured the longest period of unbroken peace that Europe has ever known."

"This enduring partnership rooted out of so many different things, but our common security is always number one," Trump said, "and our common devotion to human dignity and freedom."

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ABC News(MANCHESTER, England) -- In the wake of a devastating bombing in Manchester that killed at least 22 people at an Ariana Grande concert, officials and parents alike were grappling with the news that many of the injured and killed were young adolescents or children.

U.K. Prime Minister Theresa May called the bombing a "sickening attack" that targeted children and young people "who should have been enjoying one of the most memorable nights of their lives."

"We struggle to comprehend the warped and twisted mind that sees a room packed with young children not as a scene to cherished but as an opportunity for carnage," May said Tuesday.

According to the Greater Manchester Health and Social Care, a total of 119 people were taken by ambulance or went to a hospital following Monday night's attack at Manchester Arena. Officials said 64 were being treated as of Wednesday and 20 of them remained in critical condition across Greater Manchester.

At least 12 children under the age of 16 were seriously injured, officials said. An 8-year-old girl who died from her injuries is the youngest known victim in the attack.

Saffie Rose Roussos

Among the dead is Saffie Rose Roussos, described by her teacher as a "beautiful little girl."

Saffie had become separated from her mother and sister during the attack.

Chris Upton, the headteacher at the Tarleton Community Primary School, where Saffie was a student, released a statement calling the girl's death a "tremendous shock."

"I would like to send our deepest condolences to all of her family and friends," Upton said. "The thought that anyone could go out to a concert and not come home is heartbreaking. Saffie was simply a beautiful little girl in every aspect of the word. She was loved by everyone and her warmth and kindness will be remembered fondly. Saffie was quiet and unassuming with a creative flair."

Upton said the school will be calling in specialists to help students and staff cope with Saffie's death.

Georgina Callander

Runshaw College confirmed that the 18-year-old college student was among the victims.

"It is with enormous sadness that it appears that one of the people who lost their lives in Monday’s Manchester attack was one of our students here at Runshaw College," school officials said in a statement posted on Facebook. "Georgina Callander was a former Bishop Rawstorne pupil studying with us on the second year of her Health and Social Care course. Our deepest sympathies, thoughts and prayers go out to all of Georgina’s friends, family, and all of those affected by this loss."

Olivia Campbell

"RIP my darling precious gorgeous girl Olivia Campbell taken far far to soon go sing with the angels and keep smiling mummy loves you so much," Olivia's mother, Charlotte Campbell, wrote on Facebook.

 Prior to learning that her 15-year-old daughter had been killed in the attack, the teen's mother pleaded for the public to help her locate her daughter, telling the BBC, "I’m worried sick. If anybody has seen her please contact the police. Contact somebody let her know you’ve seen her. Even if you think you’ve seen her just let the police know ... We’ve not slept. We’ve got family out looking for her. Please, please somebody must have seen her at some point. Just let me know you’ve seen her. Let the police know, let anybody know you’ve seen her please."

Lisa Lees

The 43-year-old mother and grandmother was also among those killed. One of her daughters, Lauren Ashleigh Lees, described her as "a very elegant person" and "an amazing" mother, grandmother and wife who was "absolutely adored" by everyone around her.

"She cared so much for everybody and did anything for them," Lauren Ashleigh Lees said in a statement. "We will pull together as a family and help each other through the darkness."

Nell Jones

The ninth-grader was confirmed to have died in the attacks by her school, Holmes Chapel Comprehensive and Sixth Form. The girl's family had searched for her after she attended the concert, but the teen died at the scene, according to her school's headteacher Denis Oliver.

"We are all devastated by the loss and as a school community we must now come to terms with what has happened," Oliver said in a statement.

The school plans on bringing in professional support to help teachers and students grieve.

 Nell's form tutor David Wheeler called the teen "always smiling."

“Nell was a very popular girl, always smiling, always positive," Wheeler said in the statement. "Her tutor group have been together since the transition from primary school. It feels like they have lost a sister not a classmate”

Another student at the school, Freya Lewis, was hospitalized after the attack. Her father told the school that the teen is recovering after having been in surgery for over 10 hours.

Martyn Hett

Hett's employer, Rumpus PR, confirmed his death in a statement, calling Hett "larger than life, colourful and charismatic."

Paul Evans, managing director of Rumpus PR, said Hett was a "talented writer, creative thinker and social media expert."

"Words really can’t express how much he will be missed by colleagues and clients alike," Evans said in a statement. "Martyn loved life and I hope his lasting legacy is that people -- in these dreadful times -- choose to live their lives with joy not hate, just like he did."

Chloe Rutherford and Liam Curry

In a statement, the teens' families said, "They were perfect in every way for each other and were meant to be."

"They wanted to be together forever and now they are."

Tribute from the family of Chloe Rutherford, 17, and the family of Liam Curry, 19

— G M Police (@gmpolice) May 24, 2017

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Franco Origlia/Getty Images(ROME) -- First lady Melania Trump paid a visit to Bambino Gesù children's hospital in Rome on Wednesday, spending her time coloring with patients, snapping selfies, signing bandages and even speaking to them in Italian.

“My visit to Bambino Gesu Children’s Hospital today was very moving," the first lady said in a statement. "To spend time speaking to and coloring with children who have such a positive spirit despite illness was an amazing gift. The time I spent with the little ones in the Intensive Care Unit is something I will never forget, and I will pray for each of them daily. I want to thank the doctors, nurses and staff of the hospital, who all do such beautiful and critical work.”

Trump also shared a moving story about a young boy who was just informed he received a heart transplant, adding that she visited with the boy just hours prior.

“Upon landing in Belgium, I learned a young boy and his family who had been waiting for a heart transplant was informed that the hospital has found a donor," she said. "I read a book and held hands with this special little one just a few hours ago, and now my own heart is filled with joy over this news.”

A little boy who I visited today & had been waiting for a heart transplant will be receiving one! #Blessings #Faith

— Melania Trump (@FLOTUS) May 24, 2017

The hospital, owned by the Catholic Church and founded in 1869, is the largest pediatric hospital and research center in Europe. The first lady personally wrote a letter to Pope Francis asking to visit the hospital, a spokesperson said.

Princess Diana and Mother Teresa are among those who have visited Bambino Gesù hospital.

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iStock/Thinkstock(CAIRO) -- The U.S. Embassy in Cairo issued a security warning about a potential threat posed by a group it referred to as a "terrorist organization."

"The embassy is aware of a potential threat posted on a website by the Hassm group, a known terrorist organization, suggesting some kind of unspecified action this evening," the embassy said in a security message. "The embassy has no further information about this potential threat but is in contact with Egyptian authorities."

Hassm is described as "a non-Salafi revolutionary jihadist group" that uses "violent insurgency tactics against Egyptian security forces, which they refer to as occupiers," according to the Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium, a digital database of research and analysis focused on terrorism.

Hasam is a splinter group of the Muslim Brotherhood, a Sunni Islamist organization and political party, according to TRAC.

The message urges Americans living in Egypt to follow security guidelines provided by the State Department for dealing with possible threats.

"U.S. citizens should continue to follow sound security practices and adhere to the security guidelines provided in the travel warning for Egypt issued by the State Department on Dec. 23, 2016," according to the message.

Additional information will be provided if it becomes available, the message said.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Authorities tell ABC News that they found a kind of bomb-making workshop in Salman Abedi’s home and he had apparently stockpiled enough chemicals to make additional bombs.

The hunt is intensifying for what British authorities suspect is a possible “network” behind the deadly suicide blast outside an Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena on Monday, officials say.

The search stretched from the U.K. to Libya, where officials made multiple arrests in a country seen by American officials as a burgeoning new base of operations for ISIS, which has claimed Salman Abedi was a "soldier of the Caliphate."

Counterterrorism officials fear whoever built the bomb that killed 22 people and injured more than 50 others may have built other improvised-explosive devices which could be used in further attacks.

“I think it’s very clear that this is a network that we are investigating,” Ian Hopkins, chief constable of the Greater Manchester Police, said in a press briefing.

According to a terrorism expert who has been briefed on the investigation, the bomb featured a sophisticated design similar to the bombs used in the attacks in Brussels in 2016.

The expert confirmed that Abedi traveled to Manchester Arena by train, likely carrying the bomb in a backpack. The device, a metal container stuffed with bolts and nails, was apparently hooked to a powerful battery and featured a remote, cell-phone detonator with built-in redundancies to ensure a blast even if a first attempt failed.

The design was sophisticated enough to bolster the theory that Abedi didn’t act alone, suggesting, according to the expert, “there’s a bomb maker on the loose.”

"It's really suggesting that he probably did not act alone, that he probably had some help, that he certainly had some advice on how to create the bomb," said Matt Olsen, former director of the U.S. National Counterterrorism Center and an ABC News contributor.

 A western counterterrorism official told ABC News hours after the attack that British-born Abedi had only days earlier returned from an extended trip to his ancestral Libya, which has seen large towns under ISIS control in the past two years.

Libyan authorities Wednesday arrested both the bomber’s father, Ramadan, and the bomber's younger brother Hashim. Ramadan told Reuters that Salman was not a member of any terror group, but a spokesperson for Libyan special forces told ABC News that, following his arrest, Hashim admitted his involvement in the plot and told authorities that he and Salman consider themselves members of ISIS.

Hashim knew his brother was planning a suicide attack, the spokesperson said, but he didn’t know the time or place or target. According to the spokesperson, Hashim said he and Salman had been studying ISIS videos online since 2015, including videos offering instruction on how to make a bomb.

British officials expressed anger at American security officials over the leak to U.S. news media of Abedi's name hours after the attack, when they already realized he might have accomplices they needed to locate as fast as possible to prevent more lives being lost in a followup attack, one senior western official told ABC News.

Past plots to successfully attack Paris and Brussels were hatched by core-ISIS in its Syria stronghold Raqqa, but counterterrorism investigators believe Abedi dropped out of university in Manchester this year and visited Tripoli "to get some skills" from the terror group's operatives there. If true, it would be the first core-ISIS plot hatched from outside Syria and possibly signals a significant shift.

The U.S. military's Joint Special Operations Command has gradually increased its operations in Libya, killing the top ISIS leader last year in an airstrike and other senior leaders there.

The U.K. has raised its threat level and deployed troops including elite anti-terrorism commandos of the Special Air Service.

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Vatican Pool/Getty Images(ROME) — President Donald Trump and Pope Francis exchanged gifts Wednesday following their cordial, private meeting at the Vatican that lasted about 30 minutes.

In standard practice, the pope gave rosaries to the president's visiting U.S. delegation, including first lady Melania Trump and the president's son-in-law and daughter, White House advisers Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump.

The pope gave the president a large medal by a Roman artist, inscribed with an olive branch — a symbol of peace.

Pope Francis also gave Trump this year's "message of peace" with a personalized inscription he had written.

"We can use peace," Trump said. "That's so beautiful. Thank you."

Other gifts from the pope include his three writings on the topics of family, the joy of the gospel and "care of our common home, the environment," which the pope said he gives to all Catholics.

Included in these three writings is Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical "Laudato Si," in which he calls for global action to combat climate change.

"Well I'll be reading them," Trump said after receiving the gifts.

In return, President Trump gave Pope Francis a set of books by civil rights icon Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. presented in a custom, hand-made display case.

"I think you will enjoy them," Trump told the pope.

The first-edition collection includes Stride Toward Freedom, The Measure of a Man, Why We Can’t Wait, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? and The Strength to Love, which has Dr. King's signature.

According to the White House, each book is "custom-bound and accented with gold hand-tooling."

In addition to the books, Trump gave the pope a piece of the Dr. King monument, the Stone of Hope, engraved with a quote, and a hand-made bronze sculpture of a floating lotus by a Florida artist titled "Rising Above." The sculpture represents "hope for a peaceful tomorrow" the White House said.

Before parting ways, President Trump thanked the pontiff and said, "I won't forget what you said."

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